Q: Are photons waves or particles ?

A: They are geometric quanta of ElectroMagnetic energy momenta, where their quantised angular momenta [m^2/s] forms their equilateral charge geometries and their linear [sqrt] momentum [mv] radiates outward in two directions from their point sources.

The changing rhombic geometry of photons in relative motion to an observer creates the changing electric and magnetic fields that we measure in modern physics as oscillating orthogonal EM waveforms..

As their electric field geometries increase their magnetic fields decrease, and as the magnetic fields increase the electric fields decrease creating a sinusoidal waveforms if E&M fields 90 degrees apart from each other yet interrelated through their energy momenta geometries.

Photons of EM energy momenta create self-similar ElectroMagnetic field geometries that can be either transverse or longitudinal wrt their direction of propagation, and posses any angle of polarization and whose phase angle relationships follow Euler's formula.

In short - they are geometric quanta that produce EM waves and interference patterns wherever they interact with each other. [Tetryonic theory]

Q: What is a photon?

A: Photons are comprised of dual charge bosons that have combined to form a neutral quantum of energy momenta [light].

Using equilateral energy all the geometries of quantum EM mass­-Matter particles can be physically modeled revealing the known Standard Model particles.

The net unidirectional momentum of bosons then distinguishes them from the Photons that possess a bi­directional momentum.

Closer examination of the geometries highlights a long­ standing error in the mathematical formulation of QM energy formulas, namely the mistaken interchanging of Planck's quanta [v] for Einstein's frequency [f] in relation to Energy.

2D EM masses [Bosons­Photons] do not possess the physical property of 3D Matter [Fermions]. Fermions can now be defined as the standing wave energy geometries that create all the known sub­atomic particles ­ the building blocks of large scale Matter and structure in the macro world.

Historically these particles have been classified according to their charges and masses, Tetryonic geometry now provides a 3D physical model of all the particles highlighting the physical source of the 1/3 charges of Quarks revealing charge to be the foundational geometry of all Matter.

Q: How much does a photon weigh? Step 1
[M]atter is a measure of ENERGY per second squared
[m]ass/ c^2 = ENERGY/c^4 = [M]atter
[m]ass * c^2 = ENERGY = [M]atter *c^4

A: The charged Planck geometry of photons [and EM waves]
[hf = E = 2hv] where the equilateral geometry of W bosons defines the rhombic geometry of photons themselves and the EM waves they in turn comprise [EVEN hv = n.hf].
[not spherical bundles of mass-energy as often illustrated in physics]
they have no z-component to their mass-energy momenta...
A: Relativistic quanta of mass-energy momenta
The expression for momentum is, to say the least, naive. It's very confusing to take a classical approach to a particle that exhibits both classical and quantum behaviours.

The error lies in physics, or rather, the oratorical abilities of Physicists and their mastery of the English language. Remember, when we say a photon has no mass, we mean that its invariant mass is zero. Let's step back again.
E^2 = (pc)^2 + (m0 c^2)^2 is equivalent to (mc^2)^2
Then we find that a photon with m0 = 0 has "relativistic mass"
m = rac{p}{c} which is directly proportional to its momentum.
m = E / c^2 = rac{p}{c} = rac{h}{c} imes = rac{1}{lambda}
particles have invariant mass [m0] and total energy [m, E]
(don't say "relativistic mass") "relativistic mass" and energy are equivalent, it is merely a unit conversion between Energy and Energy per second [m]
Gravity - as distinct from gravitation is a physical force produced and experienced by all material objects that possess both mass-energy and a 3D topology...
they are comprised of dual equilateral energy quanta [W bosons]
whose inductive loop properties give rise to inertial mass
their energies measured per unit Time gives rise to mass [m]
and and associated square root linear momentum component [p]
and as a result of their charge geometries are their own anti-particle.

A photon's quantum charge geometry is self-similar to the EM wave it creates and it part of, and it propagates at 'c' for the medium it is within.

Each photon has a quantum magnetic moment which enables to it be polarised and refracted as it passes through fields external to it.

Bosons are shown to be transverse EM fields that facilitate EM induction and Photons are revealed as longitudinal dual­ charge pairs possessing a neutral EM charge and inherent magnetic moment.

A: In order to explain and correct common misconceptions in physics about photons and their properties and interactions with gravitational fields a clear definition and distinction must be made between 2d mass-energies [bosons-photons] & 3D Matter [Fermions].....

[m]ass is a measure of planar ENERGY per second

2d mass-energies are planar Euclidean geometries [think sheets of paper] while 3D Matter possesses a material Topology [closed volume] that can be created from those planar sheets of mass-energy.....

Tetryonic charge geometries give rise to the planar 2d geometries of mass-energy and the 3D Topologies of Matter in physics and Einstein's mass-ENERGY equivalence can now be re-formulated to provide a complete relationship for mass - ENERGY- Matter:

[m]ass = ENERGY/c^2 = [M]atter *c^2

where [m] symbolises 2d mass and [M] stands for 3D Matter so as to define and differentiate between the two in mathematical equations.

To date this has not been the case with mass & Matter being interchanged frequently for each other in physics texts even within the same sentence....

2d mass geometries per second = ENERGY /sec ^2 = 3D Matter topologies

It is 3D Matter topologies that are affected by Gravity - NOT planar mass-energies - and in order to have its motion affected by a gravity field a concentration of mass-energy MUST possess a 3D Topology.

bosons and photons are 2d planar fields of electromagnetic momenta

Correcting a centuries old erroneous and incomplete view of mass & Matter is the first step in acquiring the knowledge require to understanding the quantum mechanical properties of photons....

[in step 2 - the 2d geometries of bosons & photons are revealed]

Q: How much does a photon weight [Step 2]

All neutral charge photons are comprised of 2 charged bosons.

It is the equilateral EM field geometries of charged bosons within photons [and EM waves] that creates the familiar sinusoidal waveforms [simple harmonic motion] as they pass by or are absorbed by detectors etc... and which have been mistakenly idealised as functions of unit circles through maths without geometric identities...


In fact the same sinusoidal [rhombic] EM waveforms of photons in EM waves, when absorbed or measured are fully explained by Euler's formula [as illustrated] revealing the true identity and reason behind the beauty of his equation..... whether it is expressed as i, pi or phase angles they all relate back to the geometric EM phases of photons....

Charged W bosons [n.hv]are transverse measurements of mass-energy momenta within EM waves and photons [n.hf] are longitudinal measurements of mass-energy momenta within the same EM waveforms... there exists NO Matter [Z components] to these EM fields of mass-energy momenta and both the transverse and longitudinal waveforms can be combined to give the full wave-function of any electromagnetic waveform....

With the associates wavefunction probabilities being revealed for either transverse [boson] or longitudinal [photon] measurements of the total electromagnetic field energies.... with their associated probabilities, component linear momentum and wave-amplitude becoming easily identifiable in Tetryonic colour-coded geometrics....

The true quantum geometry of photons is finally revealed.


Q: What is the ‘weight’ of a photon? [Step 3]

Nothing screams error more than the 'squared' numbers, 'mass-less' photons and E=mc^2 in the mathematics of physics.........

It is time physics was taught how to differentiate 2-dimensional mass from 3D Matter and bosons from photons geometrically.......before more harm is done to the next generation of scientists....

Let’s see how confused physicists get trying to explain photon's properties in terms of 2d mass

A photon obeys E = pc. Einstein (in 1905) showed this mathematically in his seminal paper on Special Relativity by stating that E^2 = (pc)^2 + (m0 c^2)^2, where m0 is the rest mass (or invariant mass) of the particle. [Invariant means the mass in the rest frame of the particle or motionless]

Thus it become commonplace to state that a photon has no rest mass. In other words, m{0,gamma} = 0 (we usually denote photons by gamma in physics). Notice that by setting m0=0 above, we obtain E=pc.

But that's weird, because then a photon still has momentum! For us, classical momentum is attributed to an object of mass m moving at speed v such that p = mv. But a photon has no mass, therefore no momentum. Here's another question: we know photons can hit things and excite objects, so it must be transferring energy. But Einstein also said E=mc^2. So if a photon has no mass, it has no energy?

What mass was Einstein talking about when he stated E = mc^2? He clearly did not mean the invariant mass which is zero, he meant that a particle of energy [E] has relativistic mass [m]. People (back in the day) used to call this m relativistic mass. This term still carries over today.

Let's expand our equations about that total energy E here:

What's this momentum then? de Broglie's relation from wave-particle duality does state that p = rac{h}{lambda} where h is Planck's constant and lambda is the wavelength of the particle (in our case, the "colour" of the photon).

Then, we can combine everything to see that the "mass" of a photon (really, I should be calling this the energy of a photon) is just

And you can sort of see (from a semi-classical approach) that a photon with a more redder (longer, larger wavelength) will have a "smaller mass" - but what we're really saying is that it has less energy than a bluer photon.

To summarize:

Tetryonics shows us that Energy and mass are equivalent [as per Einstein's formula E=mc^2].... ie any measurement of Energy per second is a measurement of 2d mass, leading to the measurements of momentum [p=mv] associated with EM waves....

What the photon doesn't have [as it's a 2d planar field of EM mass-energy] is any 3D Matter topology [or extended Z component to its energy waveform]...... as Tetryonic theory charged geometries clearly show.

In short a photon has a relativistic [velocity related de Broglie WAVE-length], but it is 'Matter-less' field or weightless particle in gravitational fields.

So how can it be bent by such fields as 'shown' in General Relativity, it path through space can't be bent by gravity , a photon is REFRACTED by the external EM fields it is moving through [Faraday effect, polarisation etc].

It all comes down to scientists not defining the geometric properties of photons correctly and mixing up mass & Matter in the math equations that describe them, and then interchanging [m] for [M] in their explanations of the same.

Thankfully a geometric solution is at hand.

Until modern physics learns to differentiate between mass & Matter [and the role charge plays in QM] it will continue to 'pat itself on the back' on the experimental verification of data while drawing incorrect extrapolations from experimental results and the maths associated with those results...

What is desperately needed is a new theory that explains the experimental results obtained, corrects the underlying maths and unites the separate fields of physics, chemistry, biology and cosmology into one unified theory... [Tetryonics is just that theory]

Q: The Weight of a Photon [Step 4]

A: It can now be shown, and understood if you have been following the previous posts, that photons are planar geometries of mass-energy momenta.

Their rhombic [dual-equilateral] electromagnetic fields geometries are comprised of 2 charged bosons [W] that posses sqrt linear momentum causing the photon to radiate in two directions from their point sources.

Any measurement of these energies per second [E/c^2] is a measurement of mass, but as there is NO Z component to 2d planar field geometries [ie no closed topologies] they are in fact MATTER-less fields... or fields of weightless mass-energy momenta.

Their planar rhombic geometries are in fact the result of their quantised angular momenta [the m^2/s of Planck's constant] and it in turn is NOT a vector rotation about a point [spin] as is taught in modern physics but an equilateral geometry at the quantum scale.

Their 'spin' can in fact be modelled as an ideal quantum inductive loop of EM energies [as illustrated] which in turn gives rise to the physics and properties of inertial mass.

Their rhombic dual charge field geometries give rise to the sinusoidal orthogonal electromagnetic waveforms associated with EM waves and photons alike.

And they are completely unaffected by Gravity.....

As photons [and bosons] do not possess a 3D topology [Z component] to their planar 2d fields of mass-energy momenta they are not affected by gravity fields - they are however subject to forces subjected upon them by external EM fields like those found near planets and stars and in particle accelerators etc...

The 'bending' of light near to stars etc is a in fact the 'lensing or refraction' of photons of light due to the EM component of gravitational field.... [GR]aviation = [G]ravity + EM fields near Matter.

As GR and Newton alike do not define or differentiate between 2d mass & 3D Matter in their equations neither can explain these physical properties like Tetryonics can.... yet they play an important role in the mechanics of our Universe on all energy scales.. the use of stress energy tensors [Tab] based on E=mc^2 or the geometrics of Newton [G.(M1.M2)/r^2] is simply insufficient to reveal and explain the mechanics of universal gravitation...

Photons are 'Matterless' particles - weightless EM field geometries

They are also geometrically self-similar to the EM field sthey create

A single photon comprised of 2 Planck quanta has:

and as the photon passes through differing mediums its linear momentum [p=mv] will change as its velocity of propagation will be affected by the impedance [Z = Eo*Uo] of medium itself.

'mass-less particle' is a complete misnomer for bosons, photons and EM waves alike as is the question what is the 'weight of a photon'..

A photon is weightless in a Gravity field as it is a planar 2d EM field of mass-energy momentum NOT a material 3D particle topology..... but its path can be refracted by the medium [external EM fields and Matter] through which it passes.